RFID: What is this, How it works and Its Practical Applications

RFID is the Radio Frequency Identification which is widely used for detecting many objects. In this post, you’ll learn the Basics of RFID, It’s working, and practical applications.

What is RFID and How it works

RFID works on radio waves. An RFID uses the electromagnetic fields to identify the RFID tags. When the tag comes in the range of RFID reader the signals are sent from the tag, thus we can identify the object. The example is a book is a library. Here RFID tag is attached to the book. When (tag) book is in range of RFID Reader it sends the signal and thus its presence is detected.


Components of RFID system:

So far, you have understood that such system involves two components:

A Reader

It simply receives/reads data. They can be of a small size or large sized as much as doors, walls, or buildings.


A tag can be a small chip installed in credit card or some similar small sized object. Tags are often classified into three classes.
  1. Active: They have their own supply and are larger in size.
  2. Passive: from radio waves from the reader to an energy source. They don’t have their own supply and are smaller in size.
  3. Semi-passive: They have their own supply, but use the redaer source to detect the signals. 
RFID tag has four parts:
  1. Transponder: It receives signals.
  2. Rectifier circuit: This circuit receives power from the reader (in case of passive tags).
  3. Controller & Memory: They receive signals and then process.
Name Frequency Range Distance Technology
Low frequency 125 – 134 kHZ 10 cm Inductive coupling
High frequency 13.5 MHZ 1 m Inductive coupling
Ultr-High frequency 860-960 MHZ 10 m Electromagnetic coupling

The video below summarizes all general things you should know about RFD:

Practical applications


Can be used in libraries, hospitals, schools, colleges, museums, and sports.

Commerce and Retail

Retail industries can use RFID for identification of equipment and other tools.


Many countries use RFID in their passports.

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