Types of Transformers: Core Type vs Shell Type

The basic construction of transformer involves two parts: Winding and the core. On the basis of design, transformers are of two types the core type and the shell type.

Core type Shell type
A rectangular core. A shell type structure with three legs.
Winding surrounds the core. Core surrounds the winding.
Economical to manufacture. Expensive.
Used for smaller power applications. Used for high power applications.

Two things you should know about the core

The core is laminated

The core of the transformer is laminated to reduce the Eddy current losses.

Windings are wrapped one above the other

In a practical transformer, both windings are wrapped above each other in a configuration that low voltage winding is connected directly to the core, while high voltage winding is placed above it. Such configuration insulates high voltage winding from the core as well as leakage flux is reduced to a comparatively smaller ratio.
The animation below illustrates this configuration in action:

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